C programming textbook balaguruswamy pdf

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C Programming Textbook Balaguruswamy Pdf

programming in ansi c by e balaguruswamy pdf free download 03object oriented from ACG at Keiser University, Tampa. View zmagormisvile.gq from ACG at Keiser University, Tampa. Pdf programming in c by balaguruswamy Pdf programming in c. Title: Programming In Ansi C. Author: E. Balagurusamy. Publisher: Tata a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section of the book. 2.

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Set will have to somehow represent the fact, that we are working with sets; add takes an element, adds it to a set, and returns whatever was added or already present in the set; find looks for an element in a set and returns whatever is present in the set or a null pointer; drop locates an element, removes it from a set, and returns whatever was removed; contains converts the result of find into a truth value.

If we used this name for a set function, we could no longer include stdio. On the one hand it makes it impossible to discover what a set looks like, but on the other hand it permits us to pass virtually anything to add and the other functions. Not everything will behave like a set or an element — we are sacrificing type security in the interest of informa- tion hiding. However, we will see in chapter 8 that this approach can be made completely secure. Set is a pointer, not a type defined by typedef; therefore, we cannot define local or global variables of type Set.

Instead, we are only going to use pointers to refer to sets and ele- ments, and we declare source and sink of all data items in new. The text only shows the interesting parts of each new file, the source diskette contains the com- plete code of all examples. If they are, the descriptor has to indicate at least how much memory is required. This description leaves room for the functionality of strcmp: Real life objects need more functionality to do something useful.

For the moment, we restrict ourselves to the bare necessities for membership in a set. If we built a bigger class library, we would see that a set — and in fact everything else — is an object, too.

At this point, a lot of functionality results more or less for free. If all is well, we find the objects in the set and we should not find another new object. The program should simply print ok.

Ansi c Balaguruswamy-C Language.pdf

The call to differ illustrates a semantic point: Similarly, once we remove the object, it should no longer be in the set. Removing an element not in a set will result in a null pointer being passed to delete. For now, we stick with the semantics of free and require this to be acceptable. If an object stores no information and if every object belongs to at most one set, we can represent each object and each set as small, unique, positive integer values used as indices into an array heap[].

If an object is a member of a set, its array element con- tains the integer value representing the set. Objects, therefore, point to the set containing them. Sets and objects have the same representation, so new pays no attention to the type description. It only returns an element in heap[] with value zero: Before an object is added to a set, we let it contain the impossible index value MANY so that new cannot find it again and we still cannot mistake it as a member of any set.

A more realistic implementation should at least print a reasonable error message or use a general function for error handling which the user may overwrite.

For our pur- pose of developing a coding technique, however, we prefer to keep the code uncluttered. In chapter 13 we will look at a general technique for handling excep- tions.

An element of heap[] is recycled by setting it to zero: A set is represented in its objects: If an ele- ment contains MANY, it can be added to the set, otherwise, it should already be in the set because we do not permit an object to belong to more than one set. The other functions are just as simple. If so, we return it to object status by marking it with MANY: In this case, however, we would replicate most of the code of find in drop.

Our implementation is quite unconventional.

Programming in ansi c by e balaguruswamy pdf free

It turns out that we do not need differ to implement a set. We still need to provide it, because our application uses this function. We are done — for this solution we have not used the descriptors Set and Object but we have to define them to keep our C compiler happy: This time we use dynamic memory and represent sets and objects as structures: For an element, count records how many times this element has been added to the set.

If we decrement count each time the element is passed to drop and only remove the element once count is zero, we have a Bag, i. Since we will use dynamic memory to represent sets and objects, we need to initialize the descriptors Set and Object so that new can find out how much memory to reserve: If the reference count reaches zero, the element is removed from the set: The overhead of a function call is insignificant compared to the danger of an application being able to overwrite a critical value.

Our application in section 1. After it is dropped from the set once, contains will still find it in the bag. The test program now has the output ok drop?

The application code can only access a header file where a descriptor pointer represents the data type and where operations on the data type are declared as functions accepting and returning generic pointers. The descriptor pointer is passed to a general function new to obtain a pointer to a data item, and this pointer is passed to a general function delete to recycle the associated resources.

Normally, each abstract data type is implemented in a single source file. Ideally, it has no access to the representation of other data types. If we continue to represent objects as small unique integer values, and if we put a ceiling on the number of objects available, we can represent a set as a bitmap stored in a long character string, where a bit selected by the object value is set or cleared depending on the presence of the object in the set. A more general and more conventional solution represents a set as a linear list of nodes storing the addresses of objects in the set.

This imposes no restriction on objects and permits a set to be implemented without knowing the representation of an object. For debugging it is very helpful to be able to look at individual objects. Both functions return the number of characters written.

For a new string we allocate a dynamic buffer to hold the text. When the string is deleted, we will have to reclaim the buffer. Based on the parameter, we could use a chain of if statements to handle each creation individually.

The draw- back is that new would explicitly contain code for each data type which we sup- port. It, too, must behave differently based on the type of the object being deleted: We could give delete another parameter: There is a much more general and elegant way: Part of each and every object will be a pointer with which we can locate a clean-up function. We call such a function a destructor for the object.

Now new has a problem. It is responsible for creating objects and returning pointers that can be passed to delete , i. The obvious approach is to make a pointer to the destructor part of the type descriptor which is passed to new.

So far we need something like the following declarations: Initialization is part of the job of new and different types require different work — new may even require different arguments for different types: Since constructor and destructor are type-specific and do not change, we pass both to new as part of the type description. Note that constructor and destructor are not responsible for acquiring and releasing the memory for an object itself — this is the job of new and delete.

The constructor is called by new and is only responsible for initializing the memory area allocated by new. For a string, this does involve acquiring another piece of memory to store the text, but the space for struct String itself is allocated by new. This space is later freed by delete. First, however, delete calls the des- tructor which essentially reverses the initialization done by the constructor before delete recycles the memory area allocated by new.

Therefore, revising the declarations shown in section 2. What should this pointer point to?

If all we have is the address of an object, this pointer gives us access to type-specific information for the object, such as its destructor function. It seems likely that we will soon invent other type-specific functions such as a function to display objects, or our comparison function differ , or a function clone to create a complete copy of an object.

Therefore we will use a pointer to a table of function pointers. Looking closely, we realize that this table must be part of the type description passed to new , and the obvious solution is to let an object point to the entire type description: Looking down this list, we notice that every function works for the object through which it will be selected.

Only the constructor may have to cope with a partially initialized memory area.

Balaguruswamy Ansi c Book PDF

We call these functions methods for the objects. Calling a method is termed a message and we have marked the receiving object of the message with the parameter name self. Since we are using plain C functions, self need not be the first parameter. Many objects will share the same type descriptor, i. We call all objects with the same type descriptor a class; a single object is called an instance of the class. So far a class, an abstract data type, and a set of possible values together with operations, i.

An object is an instance of a class, i. Conventionally speaking, an object is a value of a particular data type. The constructor is called by new for a new memory area which is mostly uninitialized: This is why we initialize this pointer already in new: The object is created at run time and the dashed pointers are then inserted.

We force a conversion of p which treats the beginning of the object as a pointer to a struct Class and set the argument class as the value of this pointer. Next, if a constructor is part of the type description, we call it and return its result as the result of new , i. Section 2. Note that only explicitly visible functions like new can have a variable parame- ter list. Since we might later want to share the original parameters among several functions, we pass the address of ap to the constructor — when it returns, ap will point to the first argument not consumed by the constructor.

This is used to call the destructor if any exists. Here, self plays the role of p in the previous picture. We force the conversion using a local variable cp and very carefully thread our way from self to its description: If the constructor decides to cheat, the destructor thus has a chance to correct things, see section 2.

If an object does not want to be deleted, its destructor would return a null pointer. All other methods stored in the type description are called in a similar fashion. In each case we have a single receiving object self and we need to route the method call through its descriptor: For the moment at least, we guard against null pointers. In any case, differ illustrates why this technique of calling functions is called dynamic linkage or late binding: We will call differ a selector function. It is an example of a polymorphic func- tion, i.

Once we implement more classes which all contain.

We can view selectors as methods which themselves are not dynamically linked but still behave like polymorphic functions because they let dynamically linked functions do their real work. Polymorphic functions are actually built into many programming languages, e. This phenomenon is called overloading: There is no clear distinction here: Methods can be polymorphic without having dynamic linkage. As an example, consider a function sizeOf which returns the size of any object: Notice the difference: They are derived from the correspond- ing components of struct Class by simply removing one indirection from the declarator.

Here is the application: We show the size of a String object — not the size of the text controlled by the object — and we check that two different texts result in different strings. Finally, we check that a copy is equal but not identical to its original and we delete the strings again. Dynamic linkage helps to clearly identify which functions need to be written to implement a new data type. There are many programming exercises and examples to learn every aspect of the programming language.

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